MLA Style

Sections:
1) Parenthetical References
2) Work Cited List
3) MLA Style

Below are examples of how to cite most of the common types of sources according to the MLA and APA formats:

Citation Format for Books
Citation Format for Articles from Periodicals (Magazines, Journals & Newspapers)
Citation Format for Internet Documents

For more detailed explanations of how to use these formats, you should consult the official style manual for the format that you are using. Ask a librarian to show you one of these guide books:

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (REF PN 147 G444 1998)
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (REF BF 76.7 P83 1994)

Citation Format for Books

Books with a single author:

MLA:
Author's last name, First name. Middle initial (if any). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Gamson, Joshua. R. Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press,1994.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Gamson, J. R. (1994). Claims to fame: celebrity in contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Note: Titles do not have to be capitalized in APA format.

Books with two, three or more authors:

MLA:
First author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), and Second author's First name Middle initial (if any) Last name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Note: For a book with three authors, list all three authors' names. Only the first author's name should be listed last name first. For a book with more than 3 authors, list only the first author's name followed by a comma and the words et al.

Stewart, David W., and David H. Furse. Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986.

Jonson, Albert, Thomas Gray, and Jessie Muncy. Information Access. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Baker, Nellie, et al. Book Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

APA:
First author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any), & Second author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: Invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for all authors, regardless of the number of authors.

Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D. H. (1986). Effective television advertising: a study of 1000 commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books.

Books with editor(s) rather than author(s):

MLA:
Editor's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), ed. Title. Place of publication: Year of publication.

Baughman, Cynthia, ed. Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle. New York: Routledge, 1995.

APA:
Editor's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Ed. ). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Baughman, C., (Ed. ). (1995). Women on ice: feminist essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan spectacle. New York: Routledge.

Chapter in a book with an editor:

MLA:
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Chapter or Essay." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's first and last name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page numbers for the chapter.

Fox, Aaron A. "Split Subjectivity in Country Music and Honky-Tonk Discourse." In All That Glitters: Country Music in America, ed. George H. Lewis, 131-139. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year of publication). "Title of Chapter or Essay." In Editor's first initial. Middle initial (if any). Last name. (Ed.), Title of book. (pp. Page numbers for the chapter.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Fox, A. A. (1993). Split subjectivity in country music and honky-tonk discourse." In G. H. Lewis (Ed.), All that glitters: country music in America, (pp.131-139). Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

Citation Format for Articles from Periodicals (Magazines, Journals & Newspapers)

Magazine article:

MLA:
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day (if given) Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year: Page numbers of article (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page followed by a +).

Bazell, Robert. "Science and Society: Growth Industry." New Republic 15 Mar. 1993: 13-14.

Frank, Michael. "The Wild, Wild West." Architectural Digest June 1993: 180+.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year, Month Day (if given)). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number, Page numbers of article.

Bazell, R. (1993, March 15) Science and society: growth industry. New Republic, 208, 13-14.

Frank, M. (1993, June) The wild, wild west. Architectural Digest, 50, 180-186, 199.

Journal article:

MLA:
Author's Last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of article." Journal title Volume number. Issue number (if each number of journal begins on page 1) (Date of publication): page numbers.

Babrow, Austin S. "Student Motives for Watching Soap Operas." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 31.3 (Summer 1997): 309-321.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number, if each number of journal begins on page 1), Page numbers of article.

Babrow, A. S. (1997) Student motives for watching soap operas. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 31(3), 309-321.

Newspaper article:

MLA:
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Article Title." Title of Newspaper Day Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year: Section and page number(s) (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, just give the first page followed by +).

MacKenzie, Bill. "Packin' the Heat." San Francisco Chronicle 4 Nov. 1993: A16+.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. section and page number(s).

MacKenzie, B. (1993, November 4). Packin' the Heat. San Francisco Chronicle, pp. A16, A18.

Article from an online periodical database (such as InfoTrac Searchbank databases or Proquest Newspapers database):

MLA:
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Title of Database. Name of computer service. Accessed Date of researcher's access. <Electronic address, or URL> (if available).

Kaiser, Jocelyn. "Acid Rain's Dirty Business: Stealing Minerals from the Soil." Science 12 Apr. 1996: 198. Academic ASAP. InfoTrac SearchBank. Accessed 18 Feb. 1998. <http://web7.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/620/714/28299924w3/6!xrn_1>.

APA:
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Title of Database. Name of computer service. Retrieved Month Day, Year from the World Wide Web: URL (web address) of the page.

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Academic ASAP. InfoTrac SearchBank. Retrieved January 27, 1998 from the World Wide Web: http://web1.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/328/521/26062376w3/12!xrn_1.

Article from a CD-ROM periodical database (such as Newsbank S.F. Chronicle databases or Proquest New York Times databases):

MLA:
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Name of Database, if different from periodical title. CD-ROM. Name of software. Date(s) of database coverage.

Morris, Joe. "Business Booming in Silicon Valley." New York Times 24 Nov. 1995: A10+. CD-ROM. Proquest. 1995.

APA:
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. [CD-ROM]. Producer (optional). Name of Database, if different from periodical title. Name of software. Date(s) of database coverage.

Morris, J. (1995, November 24). Business Booming in Silicon Valley. New York Times pp. A10+. [CD-ROM]. Proquest. 1995.

Citation Format for Internet Documents

World Wide Web pages
The MLA and the APA formats for electronic publications are not yet completely standardized. Various websites provide specific information on how to cite information from the World Wide Web according to their current interpretations of official citation formats. The MLA and APA official websites, listed below, each provide some information on citing electronic documents, but the format information provided by the APA site is quite limited. Xia Li and Nancy Crane, librarians at the University of Vermont, who authored Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information maintain a website that is often used as a standard for electronic citation format and their site is also listed below.

APA Web site
Li and Crane's site

MLA:
Author's last name (if an author is given), First name Middle initial (if any). Title of the Site. (if no title is given, provide a description, such as Home Page) Date of publication or latest update (abbreviated except May, June, and July). Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the website (if given). Date Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year of researcher's visit. <URL (web address) of the page>.

Note: If any of the above information is not given (such as last update, author, or sponsoring institution), leave the information out.

Drudge, Bob. My Virtual Reference Desk - A One-Stop Site for All Things Internet. 15 Feb.1998. ICNet. 17 Feb. 1998. <http://www.refdesk.com/>.

APA:
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any) -or- Institutional or Organizational Author. (Year, Month Day of last update). Title of web page [explanation of document type, except for online periodical articles]. City (if given): Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the website (if given). Retrieved Month Day, Year from the World Wide Web: URL (web address) of the page.

Note: If any of the above information is not given (such as last update, author, or sponsoring institution), leave the information out.

American Psychological Association. (1995, September 15). APA public policy action alert: Legislation would affect grant recipients [Announcement posted on the World Wide Web]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved January 25, 1996 from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/ppo/istook.html.

Adapted from:
College of San Mateo, LIBR 684.
Skyline College, LSCI 100: Introduction to Information Resources.