Citing Your Sources:
1) Parenthetical References
and APA Citation Styles
What are parenthetical references?
references refer the reader to specific pages in a book, magazine or
other source from which quotations or facts are taken. They are used
to provide additional information without breaking the logical development
of the thoughts in your paper. Parenthetical references are used in
place of footnotes.
Why are parenthetical references needed?
borrowed information in your paper must be acknowledged. Parenthetical
references provide the exact source of the quotation (somebody else’s
words), or of the facts that were gathered by someone else. They give
added authority to your paper. They also provide the reader with leads
to other sources and permit the reader to check (verify) the sources
that you used to come to your conclusions.
How are parenthetical references prepared?
references are brief references, enclosed by parentheses, within the
text of your paper. They refer the reader to your bibliography. Parenthetical
references usually include the author’s last name and the page
number. The reader can then turn to your bibliography or list of works
cited for complete publishing information.
- References in
the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works
- Identify the location of the borrowed material as specifically as
- Keep parenthetical references as brief and as few as clarity and accuracy
- If you
mention the author’s name, you need only
put the page number(s) in parentheses.
- If you have two authors with the same last name in your bibliography,
include their first names in the parenthetical references.
- If you have two works by the same author in your bibliography, include
the title of the work in your sentence or in the parenthetical reference
in abbreviated form.
- If you are citing an entire work rather than a specific passage or
section, omit the parenthetical reference and give the author’s
name in your sentence.
name in parenthetical reference
"The health status of African Americans is getting worse"
name included in text
Bobby Lake-Thom believes he might "lose the opportunity to connect
with, acquire, and apply a new source of knowledge and power" when
he can’t read nature’s signs (25).
"Teleconferencing techniques are essential components of several
forms of distance education" (Barron and Orwig 228).
listed by title (no author)
The evening news programs are focusing more and more on serious crime
(Live at 11: Death).
"Foreign plant quarantines control the shipping of plants from
other countries" (World Book 15:550).
The U.S. Department of Labor expects employment in the broadcasting
industry to increase by about 15 percent between 1990 and 2005 (90).
Works on the World Wide Web are cited just like printed works. Web documents
generally do not have fixed page numbers or any kind of section numbering.
If your source lacks numbering, you have to omit numbers from your parenthetical
references. If your source includes fixed page numbers or section numbering
(such as numbering of paragraphs), cite the relevant numbers.
"How to write Parenthetical References." MLA Handbook for
Writers of Research Papers. 5th ed. 1999.
"How to write Parenthetical References." Diablo Valley College.