Citing Your Sources: MLA and APA Styles

Sections:
1) Parenthetical References
2) Works Cited List
3) MLA and APA Citation Styles
4) Quiz

Below are examples of how to cite the most common types of sources according to MLA and APA styles.

Another good source for citation rules and examples is Purdue University's Online Writing Lab:

For more detailed explanations, you may want to consult the official style manual for the format you are using. Ask a librarian to show you one of these guide books:

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (REF PN 147 G444 1998)
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (REF LB2369.G53 2003)
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (REF BF 76.7 P83 1994)

CSM Library also subscribes to an automatic citation generator called NoodleBib. You can either create your own account (ask a librarian for the initial login and password), or use the Express version without signing in.

BOOKS

Books with a single author:

MLA
Author's last name, First name. Middle initial (if any). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Gamson, Joshua. R. Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

APA
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Gamson, J. R. (1994). Claims to fame: celebrity in contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Note: Titles are not capitalized in APA format.

Books with two, three or more authors:

MLA
First author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), and Second author's First name Middle initial (if any) Last name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Note: For a book with three authors, list all three authors' names. Only the first author's name should be listed last name first. For a book with more than three authors, list only the first author's name followed by a comma and the words "et al."

Stewart, David W., and David H. Furse. Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986.

Jonson, Albert, Thomas Gray, and Jessie Muncy. Information Access. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Baker, Nellie, et al. Book Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

APA
First author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any), & Second author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: Invert all authors' names. Give last names and initials for all authors, regardless of the number of authors.

Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D. H. (1986). Effective television advertising: A study of 1000 commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books.

Books with editor(s) rather than author(s):

MLA
Editor's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), ed. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Baughman, Cynthia, ed. Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle. New York: Routledge, 1995.

APA
Editor's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Ed. ). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Baughman, C., (Ed. ). (1995). Women on ice: feminist essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan spectacle. New York: Routledge.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES (MAGAZINES, JOURNALS & NEWSPAPERS)

Magazine article in print:

MLA
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day (if given) Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year: Page numbers of article (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page followed by a +).

Bazell, Robert. "Science and Society: Growth Industry." New Republic 15 Mar. 1993: 13-14.

Frank, Michael. "The Wild, Wild West." Architectural Digest June 1993: 180+.

APA
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year, Month Day (if given)). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number, Page numbers of article.

Bazell, R. (1993, March 15) Science and society: growth industry. New Republic, 208, 13-14.

Frank, M. (1993, June) The wild, wild west. Architectural Digest, 50, 180-186, 199.

Journal article in print:

MLA
Author's Last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of article." Journal title Volume number. Issue number (if each number of journal begins on page 1) (Date of publication): page numbers.

Babrow, Austin S. "Student Motives for Watching Soap Operas." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 31.3 (Summer 1997): 309-321.

APA
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number, if each number of journal begins on page 1), Page numbers of article.

Babrow, A. S. (1997) Student motives for watching soap operas. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 31(3), 309-321.

Newspaper article in print:

MLA
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Article Title." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication If Not Obvious or Well-Known] Day Month Year: Section and page number(s) (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, just give the first page followed by +).

MacKenzie, Bill. "Packin' the Heat." San Francisco Chronicle 4 Nov. 1993: A16+.

APA
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. section and page number(s).

MacKenzie, B. (1993, November 4). Packin' the Heat. San Francisco Chronicle, pp. A16, A18.
 

Article from an online database:

MLA
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Then add: Title of Database. Subscribing Library, Location of Library. Day Month Year of access <URL>.

Cox, Ted. "Once Daring, MTV Now a Bland Corporate Commodity." Daily Herald [Arlington Heights] 1 Aug. 2006: 1. InfoTrac Custom Newspapers. Thomson Gale. Coll. of San Mateo Lib., CA. 15 Feb. 2007 <http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/>.

APA
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Then add: Title of Database. Name of computer service. Retrieved Month Day, Year from the World Wide Web: URL (web address) of the page.

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Academic ASAP. InfoTrac SearchBank. Retrieved January 27, 1998 from the World Wide Web: http://web1.searchbank.com/infotrac/session/328/521/26062376w3/12!xrn_1.

WEB SITES

Citing Web sites can be tricky.  Do you cite the entire site or just part of it?  Who is the author of site, or a particular page? What date do you use? If in doubt, consult the sources mentioned above, or a librarian.  The following are very basic guidelines.

MLA
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). Name of Site. Date of posting/revision. Name of organization/institution affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). Date you accessed the site <electronic address>.

If any of the this information is not given, simply leave it out.

Salon. 26 Mar 2007. <http://www.salon.com>

Rybczynski, Witold. "Seattle's Best (and Worst): What Happens When Architecture Pays Attention to Its Surroundings (and When It Doesn't)." Slate Magazine 16 May 2007. 22 May 2007 <http://www.slate.com/id/2166300/fr/flyout>.


APA
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial (if any). (Year, Month Day of last update or publication). Title of document. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://Web address.

If any of the this information is not given, simply leave it out.

Salon. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from http://www.salon.com

Rybczynski, W. (2007, May 16). Seattle’s best (and worst): What happens when architecture pays attention to its surroudings (and when it doesn’t). In Slate Magazine. Retrieved May 24, 2007, from http://www.slate.com/id/2166300/fr/flyout

 

 

Adapted from:
College of San Mateo, LIBR 684.
Skyline College, LSCI 100: Introduction to Information Resources.